rice
Rice is the seed grain from the grass plant (Oryza sativa). It is one of the most produced staple crops and one of the most consumed foods in the world, responsible as the primary source of calories for millions of people. Rice is usually divided into categories of long grain, medium grain, and short grain which all have many different varieties.

sources at bottom of page

Nutrition

The difference between white and brown rice is the way it is prepared.White rice is typically the result of intense processing which polishes off the outer layers that contain much of the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients. Brown rice still has its nutrient rich outer layers with only the hull removed. Brown rice grains retain the “endosperm” center which contains starch, the “germ” inner layer which contains vitamins and minerals, and the “bran” outer layer which contains fiber and gives the kernel the brown color. That is why brown rice is considered a “whole grain”. Brown rice certainly retains more natural vitamins, minerals and plant compounds such as magnesium, potassium, iron, and B vitamins. Where brown really outshines other foods is it’s content of manganese (88%RDI) which has many health benefits for bones, blood, the heart and more.(short pp about item)

PROTEIN
Protein 5g
Brown rice can provide healthy amounts of gluten-free protein.
FAT
Fat 1.8g
Brown rice contains some fats that may be beneficial to digestion.
FIBER
Fiber 3.5g
Brown rice is an excellent source of fiber which has many health benefits
ANTI-OXIDANTS
Brown rice contains many antioxidants such as manganese,iron potassium, and more. It has some super plant compounds such as phenols and flavonoids that have antioxidant properties which reduce oxidative stress and prevent premature aging.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
Many of the antioxidants in brown rice also act as anti inflammatories.
ANTI-CANCER
The antioxidants in brown rice help remove the free radicals associated with certain cancers.
HEART
The fiber, plant compounds, and minerals in brown rice help reduce risk of heart disease
Brown rice contains lignan, which has been shown to promote heart health by lowering cholesterol and improving circulation The magnesium found in brown rice can reduce risk of heart disease and stroke by 7-22%.
DIGESTION
The fiber contained in brown rice helps build short chain fatty acids that aid digestive function.
WEIGHT LOSS
The fiber found in brown rice can help one feel full and help suppress appetite.
Brown rice has manganese that helps boost metabolism. Studies have shown that people who consumed more whole grains were less likely to gain weight than those that did not.
BONE
Manganese found in brown rice helps with bone development.
The folate in brown rice is needed to produce red and white blood cells in the bone marrow.
DIABETES
While white rice has been shown to spike blood sugar, brown rice has been shown to do the opposite. Brown rice has a low glycemic index as opposed to other rice. Some of this is due to the Manganese found in brown rice that helps regulate blood sugar. Switching from white to brown rice has been shown to have 16% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Brown rice can be a nutritious food that is safe for people who suffer from certain autoimmune disease.

Where is Rice Grown

AROUND THE WORLD
Historically, rice may have originated in India. It is believed to have first been domesticated in China over 8000 years ago. The knowledge of rice was shared between the Arabs who brought it to the Greeks. The Moors may have shared it with the Spanish who would have brought some over to the Americas on their early explorations in the1400s. The knowledge and engineering skills of how to cultivate rice was practiced for hundreds of years throughout the west coast of Africa, That knowledge was brought by enslaved Africans to the southern colonies which made rice an extremely important cash crop that was instrumental in the Atlantic trade and helped fund what became the United States.

Rice is a worldwide staple crop for more than 100 million people.

In 2019, Asian countries such as China and India were responsible for an estimated 49% of global rice production, followed by Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Together they were responsible for over 66% of of total global production of upland rice.

IN THE U.S.
Four regions produce over 98% of the rice in the US: They include the Grand Prarie of Arkansas
The Mississippi Delta, (parts of Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri, and Louisiana); Gulf Coast (Texas and Southwest Louisiana); and Sacramento Valley of California.

70% of rice produced in the US is considered long grain.
California grows 70% of medium grain rice and nearly all of the short-grain rice in the US

In Season

Rice season in Arkansas and Mississippi is in August; September in Missouri; and October in California. There may be an additional season in Texas and southwest Louisiana when they are able to reflood their fields after harvest and achieve a partial second or “ratoon” crop from the stubble of the first.
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Economic Impact

AROUND THE WORLD
Rice is the 3rd most produced crop in the world.
In 2017, 769.7 million tonnes of paddy rice was produced worldwide.
92% of the rice is consumed within the countries that produce it.
Only 5 countries export rice: Thailand, Vietnam, China, the United States and India
IN THE U.S.
In 2017, the United States produced 178.2 million cwt of rough rice, down 20 percent from 2016 and well below the record 243.1 million cwt harvested in 2010. The US produces less than 2% of global rice supply, yet is responsible for nearly 6% of global exports .The US imports approximately 9% of its rice which is mostly exotic varieties such as jasmine and basmati.

Environmental Impact

Rice is grown by different techniques such as terrace farming, damming, and channeling that all impact the land in different ways.

About 80 million hectares of irrigated lowland rice provides 75% of the world’s rice production.
60 million hectares of rainfed lowlands supplies about 20% of the world’s rice production
Improved irrigation and farming techniques have increased yield per acre.

The US has some of the highest yield per acre in the world.
Rising temperatures caused by climate change have been reducing crop yields.

WATER USE
Rice uses more water than most other grains. Almost 30% of the world’s freshwater supply is used to cultivate rice.

AIR POLLUTION
Rice agriculture may be responsible for 1.5% of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and 11% of the anthropogenic methane emissions
PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES
Excessive pesticides and herbicides in rice farms can lead to non point source pollution and reduction in biodiversity
FERTILIZER
Heavy nitrogen fertilizer in commercial rice farms are causing significant non point source pollution in some areas.

In countries of low wealth where most rice is grown by small scale farmers, fertilizer is rarely applied.

Social Impact

Rice is one of the most important staple crops in the world. Rice is responsible for over 20% of all calories consumed by humans and is crucial for the food security and health equity of over
half the world population, especially rural communities in South Asia, Latin America and parts of Africa where it is grown as a wage crop and for small scale subsistence farmers. It is a vital food to prevent malnutrition. Significant amounts of rice harvests are lost in low wealth areas because of poor storage, transportation, and lack of retail markets.

Food Safety

Rice is one of the most important staple crops in the world. Rice is responsible for over 20% of all calories consumed by humans and is crucial for the food security and health equity of over half the world population, especially rural communities in South Asia, Latin America and parts of Africa where it is grown as a wage crop and for small scale subsistence farmers. It is a vital food to prevent malnutrition. Significant amounts of rice harvests are lost in low wealth areas because of poor storage, transportation, and lack of retail markets.



 

 

SOURCES

Nutrition Data
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/is-brown-rice-good-for-you#nutrition

Nutrition
https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/cereal-grains-and-pasta/5707/2
https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/whole-grains
https://www.livescience.com/50461-brown-rice-health-benefits-nutrition-facts.html
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Riboflavin-HealthProfessional/

Protein
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319797#which-rice-is-better-in-certain-situations
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3818716/

Fiber
https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/cereal-grains-and-pasta/5712/2
http://www.usarice.com/~usarice/doclib/196/158/776.pdf
https://www.livescience.com/51998-dietary-fiber.html
https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/whole-grains-refined-grains-and-dietary-fiber

Antioxidants
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5090085/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5090085/

Anti-inflammatory
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5090085/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084045/

Heart
https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/whole-grains-refined-grains-and-dietary-fiber#.W7OWcJNKjBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3513325/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3959956/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27301975/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951311/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5143460/

Digestion
https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/cereal-grains-and-pasta/5712/2
https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/whole-grains-refined-grains-and-dietary-fiber

Weightloss
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21676152/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3230726/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14594777/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983775/
https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/cereal-grains-and-pasta/5712/2

Diabetes
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3230726/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4018597/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5518808/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25833777/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20548009/

Immune system
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9872614/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3818716/

Cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5090085/
https://www.fda.gov/food/metals/questions-answers-arsenic-rice-and-rice-products

Bone
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983775/
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/287677

Where is Brown Rice Grown?
http://ricepedia.org/rice-as-a-crop/where-is-rice-grown#:~:text=Nearly%20100%20million%20people%20depend,and%20Vietnam%20are%20important%20producers.
https://www.livescience.com/50461-brown-rice-health-benefits-nutrition-facts.html
https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/crops/rice/rice-sector-at-a-glance/
https://web.archive.org/web/20170511194947/http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC

Season
https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/crops/rice/rice-sector-at-a-glance/
https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/charts/89843/US-rice-planting-to-harvest.png?v=7302

Economic Impact
http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC
https://web.archive.org/web/20170511194947/http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC
https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/crops/rice/rice-sector-at-a-glance/
https://usda.library.cornell.edu/
https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/charts/89806/sankey_5_year_average.png?v=5665.8
https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/charts/89792/US-rice-exports-by-type1.png?v=9253.8

Environmental Impact
http://ricepedia.org/rice-as-a-crop/where-is-rice-grown#:~:text=Nearly%20100%20million%20people%20depend,and%20Vietnam%20are%20important%20producers.
http://www.fao.org/3/Y4751E/y4751e00.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20180405034821/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-10918591

Water
https://www.economist.com/leaders/2014/05/10/a-second-green-revolution

Pesticides
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6285676/#:~:text=and%20protection%20technologies.-,Pesticides%20are%20an%20important%20tool%20used%20in%20efforts%20to%20control,%2C%20diseases%2C%20weeds%20and%20rodents.&text=12%2C13%20Despite%20these%20drawbacks,used%20to%20control%20rice%20insects.

Fertilizer
https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100909141631/http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/0046225x/v34n4s26.pdf

Air Pollution
https://web.archive.org/web/20130502154909/http://www.wri.org/image/view/11147/_original
https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg1/WG1AR5_Chapter06_FINAL.pdf
https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-10918591

Social Impact
http://ricepedia.org/rice-as-a-crop/where-is-rice-grown#:~:text=Nearly%20100%20million%20people%20depend,and%20Vietnam%20are%20important%20producers.
Smith, Bruce D. (1998) The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library
http://www.fao.org/3/Y4751E/y4751e00.htm

Food Safety
https://www.the-scientist.com/daily-news/how-rice-overcomes-arsenic-36568

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